Maxxi, National Museum of arts of XXI century
With the MAXXI, the first work by Zaha Hadid to be built in Italy, Rome abandons the age of innocence as a city immune to the attack of architects of the future, taking a step forward towards a modernity that is well overdue. Rome begins to change from the eternal city into a splendid modern metropolis, where past and future meet in an architecture that is polyphonic in its language and creative in its life styles, born with the Third Millennium, all still to be invented. The MAXXI (National Museum of Arts of the XXI Century) is the result of the international competition for the construction of a new Center for contemporary arts launched in 1998 by the Ministry of Heritage and Culture.
The museum complex is located in the area of the former Montello barracks, in the Flaminio district. The winning project developed by the Anglo-Iraqi architect Zaha Hadid is based on two conceptual polarities: the language of the early professional Hadid, linked to the Russian Suprematism and a peculiar interpretation of the rationalist code by interweaving and overlapping the space system with the museum routes organically connected with the urban context. For the construction of the MAXXI, Calcestruzzi has installed inside the construction site a dedicated plant that made it possible to optimize production and to quickly meet the specific requests both of the building companies (Italiana Costruzioni S.p.A. and SAC S.p.A.) and the client (Ministry of Heritage and Culture).
There were three challenges: the need to have impressive curved architectural structures without any defects, the need to eliminate the joints typical of concrete blocks, explicitly requested by Zaha Hadid, and the need to solve the problems relating to concrete curing, once the formwork had been removed, highlighted by the building company. The solution that satisfied everyone was the development at ENCO laboratories, under the supervision of prof. Mario Collepardi, and at the Research and Innovation Center of Italcementi Group, of a new product within the Italian building scene, a cement containing three additives that would guarantee, simultaneously, Self-compacting, Self-compressing and adequate Self-curing. The mix flowability favored the compaction process without requiring vibration.
The MAXXI is part of an urban and environmental plan to refurbish a former military zone in the Flaminio district of Rome. The project included the following guidelines: preservation of the old building of the former Montello barracks; integration of the new complex in the local context; continuity and connection between the internal routes of the museum and the city traffic flows; creation of pedestrian walkways and open spaces along the perimeter of the building, enhancement of the square in front of the museum, not only as an extension of the exhibition areas, but also as a social meeting place and veritable urban agora.
Weaving and overlapping volumes and sinuous shapes to form a very complex space and functional pattern/frame. The project has two key architectural elements: architectural cement walls which define the exhibition galleries with their neutral look and configure the network of modular flows, and the glass ceiling, designed as a place of interception and diffusion of natural light.
6,000 tons of steel for the structures, 700 tons of structural steel for the cover, 50,000 m3 of site-cast concrete.
Zaha Hadid (Baghdad, Iraq, October 31, 1950). After obtaining a master's degree in mathematics at the American University of Beirut (1971) she began architecture studies at the Architectural Association of London where she graduated in 1977. She became a member of the Office for Metropolitan Architecture (OMA) with Rem Koolhaas and Elia Zenghelis, she is a teacher for the Architectural Association and continues her academic work in several universities in Great Britain and the United States.
She also works in design, fashion, art and scenography, preparing installations for the company Charleroi/Danses. Her neo-modernist architecture is inspired by the Russian avant-guard movement of the twentieth century, especially Constructivism and Suprematism. Her graduation project of a hotel to be built in London was called Malevich's Tektonik. At the end of the twenties, the suprematist Kazimir Malevič stated in his theoretical writings that one has a complete perception of space only when an environment is seen from above. Zaha Hadid adopts such a concept through complex architectural projects with aerodynamic lines that seem ready to take off. In 1979, she began her professional activity with a project of interior design in London, for which in 1982 she obtained the highest award of Architectural Design. The following year she achieved great fame by winning the competition for the Peak Leisure Club in Hong Kong.
Many other successful projects followed: the competition for the Kurfürstendamm 70 of Berlin (1986); for the Kunst Media Centre of Düsseldorf (1989-1993); for the Cardiff Bay Opera House (1996); for the Thames Water/Royal Academy Habitable Bridge of London (1996); for the Rosenthal Center for Contemporary Art of Cincinnati (1998); for the MAXXI, the National Center for Contemporary Arts in Rome (1998).
Among the most important projects to be mentioned: The Great Utopia, Guggenheim Museum (1992), New York, USA; the Fire Station for the Vitra Museum (1993), Weil am Rhein, Germany; LFONE/Landesgartenschau (1999), Weil am Rhein, Germany; Mind Zone, Millenium Dome (1999), London, United Kingdom; Summer Pavilion for the Serpentine Gallery (2000), London. United Kingdom; Pavilion R. López de Heredia Viña Tondonia (2001), Barcelona, Spain; intermodal Terminal Hoenheim-North (2001), Strasbourg, France; the Mount Bergisel ski-jump (2002), Innsbruck, Austria; Rosenthal Center for Contemporary Art (2003), Cincinnati, USA; Snow and Ice Installation, Snow Show (2004), Lapland; BMW Headquarters (2005), Leipzig, Germany; Phaeno, Science Museum (2005), Wolfsburg, Germany; Hotel Puerta America (2005), Madrid, Spain; BMW Showroom (2006), Leipzig, Germany; Maggie's Cancer Care Center, Kirkcaldy (2006), Scotland, United Kingdom; Hungerburgbahn Funicular (2007), Innsbruck, Austria; CMA CGM Shipping Company offices (2007),Marseille, France; Bridge -Pavilion Expo 2008 (2008), Zaragoza, Spain; Burnham Pavilion (2009), Chicago, United States; Riverside Museum of Transport (2004–2010), Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom. Starting from the exhibition of the Architectural Association, in 1983, her works have been published and exhibited on several occasions and many times have been discussed in international debates. Zaha Hadid lives and works in London.
- i.flow Cement and binders Infrastructure
Architect/StudioZahah Hadidalso works in design, fashion, art and scenography, preparing installations for the company Charleroi/Danses. Her neo-modernist architecture is inspired by the Russian avant-guard movement of the twentieth century, especially Constructivism and Suprematism.